Chlamydiosis is an infectious disease transmitted through sexual contact, which is now believed by scientists to be the most common disease in the world. Each year in the U.S. the number of infected people amounts to 3-4 million. In half of the cases, the disease is combined with gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, mycoplasmas, etc., in general with every known bacterial exciters transmitted sexually.
The cause of chlamydia infection are the specific microorganisms - chlamydia, but it is Chlamydia trachomatis that causes the urogenital chlamydiosis in humans.
Its semi-viral, semi-bacterial nature is the cause of its difficult diagnosis and treatment. The diagnosis is also complicated by the fact that most men and women suffering from chlamydiosis, have no evident symptoms. Since Chlamydia trachomatis can only live inside other cells, it is transmitted through direct contact of the genitals with sperm or vaginal secretions.
Vaginal intercourse is the most common way of transmitting chlamydia infection but it can also occur via semen or vaginal secretions of an infected person, if they come into contact with mucous membranes.
Chlamydiosis is the most complex of all venereal diseases. It can be transmitted during the first sexual contact, although there are exceptions.
Modern diagnostic methods identify the presence of chlamydia in every second woman with chronic inflammatory diseases of the urogenital area, in 57% of women suffering from infertility and 87% of women whose pregnancy has been interrupted.
Non-gonococcal urethritis in men is detected in 40% of the cases.
According to scientists, if a man has had sexual contacts with several women for a short period of time, he could be treated for chlamydiosis without preliminary examinations. Of course, this point of view is too strong. The infection often has an incubation period of 5 - 7 to 30 days.
The disease can cause different pathology. In men initially the urethra is affected and then the prostate, the scrotum. Sometimes Chlamydia urethritis in men is very acute. In most cases, the disease is accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the urethra such as itching and discharge. With simultaneous failure of other organs, patients complain of pain in the scrotum, the perineum, the waist, the sciatic nerve in the lower limbs.
Generally, men with chlamydiosis complain of secretions from the urethra, sometimes during defecation, after urination, and also from itchy, vague discomforting sensations in the urethra and rectum and intermittent pain in the perineum. In women most often the cervix is affected, then ascending infection occurs, which gradually covers the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and abdomen.
Chlamydia from the urethra is able to penetrate into the bladder and cause cystitis and cystourethritis.
Chlamydiosis has no precise clinical diagnosis and therefore it is subject to laboratory diagnostics. Experts recommend that every woman be attentive to their physical condition and check their underwear for the presence of secretions. If they are too heavy, a specialist should be consulted immediately.
Often chlamydiosis is diagnosed in women suffering from infertility. They cannot get pregnant. Doctors search for the reason and discover obstruction of the fallopian tubes. And when they start searching for the cause of the inflammatory process, then they deliberately search for chlamydia. If a woman infected with chlamydiosis gives birth to a child, the infection can be passed to the baby during birth.
This does not mean that pregnancy should be interrupted. The placenta protects the fetus from contamination in the womb, and the risk of contamination remains during the transition of the baby through the birth canal.
Sometimes patients with chlamydiosis develop not only cystitis, but also pyelonephritis. In most cases this is associated with abdominal pain, frequent urination, severe pain, fatigue, discharge from the urinary and genital organs, causeless increasing of temperature.
Chlamydiosis like other sexually transmitted diseases have bad and dangerous consequences. So if any doubts occur, immediately contact a specialist: venerologist, urologist or gynecologist. It is very important that both partners be tested and treated simultaneously.
The treatment is complex: antibiotics, an antiviral therapy stimulating the immune system, as well as a local therapy if necessary (physiological treatment).
To start a timely treatment, note the following symptoms of chlamydiosis:
- Presence of pale yellow spots or mucous secretions;
- Burning during urination;
- Painful intercourse in women;
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding, bleeding after sexual intercourse;
- In men - red end of the penis.
The risk of the disease can be reduced by:
- Reduction of the sexual partners;
- Use of condoms;
- Regular tests for chlamydiosis.
By Tsvetan Petrov